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Studies on In-Arms Parenting


A Resource Sheet

The following list of studies, books, and articles offer evidence to support the concept of in-arms parenting.


Ainsfeld, E., Casper, V., Nozyce, M., and Cunningham, N., Does infant carrying promote attachment?
An experimental study of the effects of increased physical contact on the development of attachment,

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, Child Development, 1990 Oct;61(5):1617-27.

Barr, Ronald, et al. Crying in !Kung San Infants, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1991, 33, 601-610.

Barr, Ronald G., MDCM, FRCP (C), and Hunziker, Urs A., MD, Increased Carrying Reduces Infant Crying:
A Randomized Controlled Trial
, Department of Pediatrics, The McGill University-Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Pediatrics 1986;77:641-648


Bowlby, John, The Child's Tie to His Mother. Attachment Behavior. In Attachment, New York: Basic Books, 1969.

Bowlby, John, Separation Anxiety. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 42 (1961) 89-113.

Brazelton, TB. and Robey, J.S., Collier G.A. (1969) Infant Development in the Zinacanteco Indians of Southern Mexico
Pediatrics, 44, 274-190

Commons, Michael Lamport, PhD, and Miller, Patrice Marie, PhD, Emotional Learning in Infants: A Cross-Cultural Examination,
Harvard Medical School and Salem State College, Paper presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia, PA, February, 1998.

Gerber, Marcelle, The Psycho-Motor Development of African Children in the First Year and the Influence of Maternal Behavior.
Journal of Social
Psychology, no.47 (1958): 185-95

Klaus, Marshall, et al, Human Maternal Behavior at the First Contact with Her Young. Pediatrics 46, no. 2 (August 1970): 187-192.

Klaus, Marshall, et al, Maternal Attachment.- Importance of the First Post-Partum Days.
New England Journal of Medicine
, 286, no. 9 (March 2, 1972): 460-63.

Landau, R. (1982) Infant Crying and Fussing: Findings from a Cross-Cultural Study,
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 13, 427-444.

Prescott, James W., PhD., The Origins of Love and Violence, Institute of Humanistic Science,
Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal,
Volume 10, Number 3: Spring 1996, pp. 143-188

Schön, Regine, and Silvén, Maarit, Natural Parenting--Back to Basics in Infant Care,
Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, and University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland,
Evolutionary Psychology, -2007. 5 (1): 102-183

Super, C.M., Harkness, S. (1987), The Infant's Niche in Rural Kenya and Metropolitan America
In Adler, L.I. (Ed.) Issues in Cross-Cultural Research, Annuals of the New York Academy of Science,
Vol. 285, New York, Academic Press.


Bernhard, Emery and Durgis, A Ride on Mother's Back, Gulliver Books, Harcourt Brace & Company,
1996, a children's book.

Blois, Maria, MD, Babywearing: The Benefits and Beauty of this Ancient Tradition,
Pharmasoft Publishing, 2005

Halfmoon, Hygeia, Primal Mothering in a Modern World, available through Amazon

Liedloff, Jean, The Continuum Concept, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., revised 1977.

Yu-Chiao Liu Lan, Christi Lan Lin, and Brenda Lin, Bonding Via Baby Carriers,
The Art & Soul of the Miao & Dong People

Pearce, Joseph Chilton, The Magical Child, Bantam Books, 1977.

Reynold, Jan. Mother and Child: Visions of Parenting from Indigenous Cultures, a photographic essay.

Ribble, Margaret, M.D., The Rights of Infants.- Early Psychological Needs and Their Satisfaction.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

Sears, William, M.D., Creative Parenting. How to Use the Concept of Attachment Parenting
to Raise Children Successfully from Birth to Adolescence

Sears, William, M.D., Growing Together. A Parent's Guide to Baby's First Year.

Sears, William, M.D., Tbe Fussy Baby. How to Bring Out the Best in Your High Need Child,
all from Creative Parenting Resources, Capistrano Beach, Ca.

Small, Meredith F., Our Babies Ourselves, How Biology and Culture Shape the Way We Parent,
Anchor Books, A Division of Random House, 1998



" Parenting in Another Culture, T. Berry Brazelton, M.D., Redbook Magazine, May 1979.
" The Importance of the In-arms Phase, Jean Liedloff, Mothering Magazine, Winter 1989.
" Wearing Your Baby, William Sears, Mothering Magazine, Winter, 1989.
" Why Babywearing's the best, Maria Blois, MD, Mothering Magazine, Jan-Feb 2007
" Wear Your Baby Right, M'Liss Stelzer, Mothering Magazine, Jan-Feb 2007



Empathic Parenting
, available through the Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children,
356 First Street, Box 700, Midland, Ontario, L4R 4P4, Canada. (705) 526-5647.

Mothering Magazine, P.O. Box 1690, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504
Tel 505-984-8116 Fax 505-986-8335

The Nurturing Parent, 303 Gurley, Ste. 260, Prescott, AZ 86301.
(now out of print, be on the lookout for old issues)


aTLC, Alliance for Transforming the lives of Children, 901 Preston Ave, Suite 14, Charlottesville, VA, 22903,
Tel/fax 888-574-7580 or 206-666-4301

Attachment Parenting International P.O. Box 210208, Nashville, TN 37221
615-298-4334 phone 615-646-7480 fax

Babywearing International


KellyMom, Breastfeeding and Parenting

The Liedloff Continuum Network

The Mamatoto Project

The Natural Child Project

Thriving Babies

Barbara Wishingrad
The Rebozo Way Project*
August 1993
revised Feb. 1999
latest revision Apr 2007

REBOZO WAY PROJECT, PO Box 22506, Santa Barbara, CA 93121 U.S.A.
*A 501(c) 3 public charity and
An international organization dedicated to the encouragement of in-arms parenting.
Tel 805-965-4402

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